Galaxies
Correlations to Project 2061 Benchmarks in Science Education
The Project 2061 Benchmarks in Science Education is a report, originally published
in 1993 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), that lists
what students should know about scientific literacy. The report lists facts and concepts
about science and the scientific process that all students should know at different grade
levels.
The report is divided and subdivided into different content areas. Within each subarea,
the report lists benchmarks for students completing grade 2, grade 5, grade 8, and grade 12.
This page lists all the Project 2061 Benchmarks met by the Galaxies project.
Content headings are listed as Roman
numerals, subheadings as letters, grade levels by numbers, and specific points by numbers
after the hyphen. For example, benchmark IA82 means the second benchmark for eighth grade
students in the first content area, first subarea.
The Galaxies unit meets the following Project 2061 Benchmarks:
IA122, IVA81, IVA82, IVE124, IVE125.
Standards
IA122. From time to time,
major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works. More
often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific
knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Change and
continuity are persistent features of science.
IVA81. The sun is a mediumsized star located near the edge of a
diskshaped galaxy of stars, part of which can be seen as a glowing band of light
that spans the sky on a very clear night. The universe contains many billions of
galaxies, and each galaxy contains many billions of stars. To the naked eye, even
the closest of these galaxies is no more than a dim, fuzzy spot.
IVA82. The sun is many
thousands of times closer to the earth than any other star. Light from
the sun takes a few minutes to reach the earth, but light from the
next nearest star takes a few years to arrive. The trip to that star
would take the fastest rocket thousands of years. Some distant
galaxies are so far away that their light takes several billion years
to reach the earth. People on earth, therefore, see them as they were
that long ago in the past.
IVE124. Different energy
levels are associated with different configurations of atoms and
molecules. Some changes of configuration require an input of energy
whereas others release energy.
IVE125. When energy
of an isolated atom or molecule changes, it does so in a definite jump
from one value to another, with no possible values in between. The
change in energy occurs when radiation is absorbed or emitted, so the
radiation also has distinct energy values. As a result, the light
emitted or absorbed by separate atoms or molecules (as in a gas) can
be used to identify what the substance is.
Correlations to NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics
Principles and Standards for School Mathematics was released in 2000 by the
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The standards, a collaboration between
education researchers and school mathematics teachers, lists what concepts students
should understand, and what skills they should possess, at different stages of their
mathematics education.
The report is divided and subdivided into ten different content areas. Within the
first six areas, the report lists benchmarks for students completing grade 2, grade 5,
grade 8, and grade 12.
Content headings are listed as Roman
numerals, subheadings as letters, grade levels as numbers, and specific
points by numbers after the hyphen.
For example, standard IA82 means the second standard for eighth grade
students in the first content area, first subarea. Content areas VI through X, which
concern skill processes in mathematics, are not divided into subareas or grade
levels. The standards met by the Galaxies project are:
IA81, IC81, IC122, IIB123, IIB125, IIC123, VA81, VC82, VC83, VI2,
VI3, VIII2, X3.
Standards
IA81. Work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems.
IC81. Select appropriate methods and tools for computing with fractions and
decimals from among mental computation, estimation, calculators or computers, and
paper and pencil, depending on the situation, and apply the selected methods.
IC122. Judge the reasonableness of numerical computations and their results.
IIB123. Write equivalent forms of equations, inequalities, and systems of
equations and solve them with fluency  mentally or with paper and pencil in simple
cases and using technology in all cases.
IIB125. Judge the meaning, utility, and reasonableness of the
results of symbol manipulations, including those carried out by technology.
IIC123. Draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled.
VA81. Formulate questions, design studies, and collect data about a
characteristic shared by two populations or different characteristics within one
population.
VC82. Make conjectures about possible relationships between two
characteristics of a sample on the basis of scatterplots of the data and
approximate lines of fit.
VC83. Use conjectures to formulate new questions and plan new studies to
answer them.
VI2. Solve problems that arise in mathematics and other contexts.
VI3. Adapt and apply a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.
VIII2. Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly
to peers, teachers, and others.
X3. Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and
mathematical phenomena.
